Chanakya was an Indian teacher, philosopher, economist, jurist and royal advisor. He is traditionally identified as Kauṭilya or Vishnu Gupta, who authored the ancient Indian political treatise, the Arthashastra.
Chanakya or kautilya (350-283 BC), was a teacher and minister of the first Maurya Emperor Chandragupta Maurya dynasty,. Chanakya was helped to Chandragupta for became king . Vishnugupta was his real name. sources mention his father’s name as Chanak and state that Chanakya’s name derives from his father’s name. they are also called a God kautilya because he was advisor of crooked policy. He created a political reference book- ’economics’ which gives information how operate any state and this book is used as reference book in today.
According to Indian history, he has known for his intense diplomatic. he rendering his political principle in the book which name is ‘Economics’, whose importance is accepted today. Many universities include kautilya’s (Chanakya’s) the ‘economics’ in own syllabus.
Chanakya was born in very poor brahmin family in 350 BCE. His birthplace is a matter of controversy, and there are multiple theories about his origin. According to the Buddhist text Mahavamsa Tika, his birthplace was Takshashila.
At that time state magadha considered very powerful state. In the patliputra, the Nanda dynasty was ruled and its king Dhananand was very lazy bend of a haughty and conservative viewpoints. sage chanaka his minister(according to one legend, dhananand’s minister name was shakatal while chanakya’s father was a teacher.) but sage chanak was insulted by dhananand and forced to leave the state then cause to this reason he died and chanakya also leave state and went takshashila university for the study
some brahmin seen the chanakya’s denture and had said that this child became a great in future but he will forget his mother. so chanakya break his front teeth.
once chanakya walking on the grass and flow blood in his foot due to grass cutting edge.So he slices honey in grass. someone asked why you are pye honey to grass rather than carve it. so he said I imposed a honey directed to its root therefore ants will eat and grass root will never impinge to someone.
After completed his study in takshashila university and then he started teaching in that university. takshashila is today’s taxila city which is situated in afghanistan. At that time there was a king ambhi state.
Aleksandra (alikasundara) known as Alexander had his troops march on India when he won Iran – was the way – on the current Afghanistan.He won several states so, chanakya was feared by this by invasion of exotic culture. He realized that in any individual state will not be able to withstand the power of the state against Alexander. They went to different states and meet its king. Then the democratic republic of the states in India, and had independent and integral towards each other , in the state. at that time in india, almost states are republic which are democratic and independence and also integral towards each other in the state. Chanakya said to him that they do help the king parvatesvara ( porus) against battle of alexander.But each State shall show his selfishness and weakness. Ambhi was merged with Alexander and to fight against parvatesvara.
At that time, magadha was the powerful kingdom but he keep aside his personal differences and had gone to again patliputra for want to protect against Alexander and pray dhanananda fight with Alexander. But Dhananand insult to him and said leave to parliament. So he promised that as long as no swamps dhanananda King until he shall build the cupola (peak).
They leave the patliputra and get ready for go to takshashila. Along the way, he show children are playing where one child became a king of children and give justice of them. Understanding a child’s view of justice, chanakya decided that he will make him a king of patliputra. chanakya bought to that boy to his mother.He explained to his mother that he would punish his son to become great. this son was a chandragupt and he was son of servant mura. so, he is called maurya.
The establishment of the great dynasty Maurya, was actually possible due to outstanding diplomat chanakya. Chanakya was a scholar, visionary and remained determined person and economics, politics and diplomacy acharya.
He urged the king to the Pataliputra for the establish of Nalanda vidyapith. He knew that dhananand will refuse about this matter. therefore people of patliputra would do rebelled against dhananand. Chanakya’s offer was cancelled by Dhananand so, all ministers are displeased with dhananand. During this time, dhananand’s son and his army share the secret information with chanakya’s faithful person.there was also a one night war in there and make king chandragupta. before morning, dhananand was sent to out of city by the chanakya.
Chanakya continued to serve as an advisor to Chandragupta after the establishment of the Maurya Empire. According to a popular legend mentioned in Jain texts, Chanakya used to add small doses of poison to the food eaten by Emperor Chandragupta Maurya (mithridatism) in order to make him immune to the poisoning attempts by the enemies.
Then Chanakya also served as an advisor to Bindusara(son of Chandragupta) for some years.
According to one legend, Chanakya retired to the jungle and starved himself to death. According to another legend mentioned by the Jain writer Hemachandra, Chanakya died as a result of a conspiracy by Subandhu, one of Bindusara’s ministers. Subandhu, who did not like Chanakya, told Bindusara that Chanakya was responsible for the murder of his mother. Bindusara asked the nurses, who confirmed the story of his birth. Bindusara was horrified and enraged. When Chanakya, who was an old man by this time, learned that the King was angry with him, he decided to end his life. In accordance with the Jain tradition, he decided to starve himself to death. By this time, the King had found out the full story which was that Chanakya was not responsible for his mother’s death, which was an accident. He asked Subandhu to convince Chanakya to give up his plan to kill himself. However, Subandhu instead conducted a ceremony for Chanakya only to burn him alive. chanakya died about 275 BCE in patliputra.
In the history, the name of chanakya take proudfully forever for his contribution in politics,patriotism and public work.Chanakya is a very strong and unique personality of the history of India. On the basis of his diplomacy, one well known plays ’mudrarakshasa’ is written in sanskrit.
The true aspect of Chanakya
The momentous life of Chanakya reminds us of a revengeful saga where the individual is obsessed by the idea of taking revenge. But personal revenge was not the aim of Chanakya. He wanted that the kingdom should be secure and that the administration should go on smoothly, bringing happiness to the people. He thought that there were two ways of ensuring the happiness of the people. Firstly, Amatya Rakshasa had to be made Chandragupta’s minister; Secondly, a book must be written, laying down how a king should conduct himself, how he should protect himself and the kingdom from the enemies, how to ensure law and order, and so on.
By writing “Arthashastra” and “Nitishastra”, Chanakya has become a
never ending phenomena. He has truly guided the generations with his
wisdom . It would ideally suit the closing of the life of Chanakya with a
couple of quotations by Chanakya
“The secret task of a king is to strive for the welfare of his people incessantly.
The administration of the kingdom is his religious duty. His greatest gift would
be to treat all as equals.”
“The happiness of the commoners is the happiness of the king. Their
welfare is his welfare. A king should never think of his personal interest
or welfare, but should try to find his joy in the joy of his subjects.”
These words were written 2300 years ago by Chanakya, the expert statesman and wise sage. And Chanakya is also another name for courage and perseverance.